Thursday, May 3, 2007

outline of paper

There are many alternatives to animal testing. There are selective formulation, human cultures, physiological chip, cellular tests, microdosing. These are very helpful to stop all the pain there has been to animals, especially rabbits. There are also some groups and other programs that are here to help stop the animals being tested.
Selective Formulation is where you pick things that has been tested and you make something new. It stops the need to test more. There are many companies that have started to use this process. They need to use this to help with their product lines and making sure that is isn't being used with animals.
Human Cultures are used with Epiderm and EpiSkin. Those are where human cells are grown in test tubes. They are made to be a replica of human cells. These are very helpful. They are the same as human cells so then you can test make-up and cleaning products on them instead of using the skin of animals like rabbits. There is also another test tube test called Corrositex. That is used in the same way, but has a gird to see color changes. EpiOcular is a small layer of skin that is put together to be made to be like a cornea and that EpiOcular test can be used to do the same tests that are done on the rabbits cornea, its very helpful because the tests can be more accurate because its a "human cornea" not a rabbits. These test can also have the skin be taken from a person who is having surgery. they can take the skin from surgeries like Breast-reduction. Skin taken from surgeries are the main kind of tissue available at the NDRI. The NDRI is like a blood bank but only for tissue. Its non-profit and has more than 100 types of different kind of tissues. The NDRI and this other group called Asterand both give human skin cells to be researched.
There is also a physiological chip. all this is is basically a microchip of humans. it is 1x1 inch and it has skin cells. these chips mimic the what the human body does. So then it can be used to test medicines and other things like that and be very accurate to a human. They can also test on the organs in the body like the liver to test what effects certain things have on it. This chip was made by Hurel Corporation in Beverly Hills California.
The Cellular test is where it uses white blood cells and they put different things in with them like chemicals and then that will help to show if there is any fever or any other side effect from the chemicals. That is especially used for things like intravenous injection medications. This is used in replace of rabbits tests. In Europe they approved five of these tests.
Then the Mircodosing test is where they get a person to get injections of something. but its a very small amount and then the researchers tract how it is taken in by the body. there are no animals involved and there are only volunteered people to do this.
There are also many groups availible that try and help with stopping animal testing. one of thos groups is the PETA. They PETA help with other groups and some doctors to stop testing and killing animals. PETA is showing the world that there are other ways to test products that don't involve animals and that are cheaper and safer in then end for humans. There is medical schools in England that have not used animal tesing in over 100 years. There are also many companies that dont use animals as testing. they use the other tests that are availible.
The ADI is a group that has been protesting animal testing and animals in entertainment all over the world. They help in animal rescue and help educate people on animal testing for many years. The ADI has been a major part of the stopping animal testing and has had many undercover investigations and many legal hearings and has showed how animals are treated and that has lead to many campanins and other hearings to stop this. The ADI is mostly helping monkeys and perimates. but they also help find other ways to test products that don't involve animals. The ADI is a part of LDF which is Fund for Humane Research.